**Answer:**

Chapter 1

1. Show that the Lorentz transformation is such that the velocity of a light ray

travelling in the x direction is the same for the observer in the frame S and for

the observer in the frame S

.

Solution: Consider a light ray travelling in the x direction. If the light ray

connects two space–time points {t1, x1} and {t2, x2}, we have

c = x2 − x1

t2 − t1

The speed of light observed in the frame S will be

c = x

2 − x

1

t

2 − t

1

= c

γ ((x2 − x1) − βc(t2 − t1))

γ (c(t2 − t1) − β(x2 − x1))

= c

x2 − x1

t2 − t2

− βc

c − β x2 − x1

t2 − t2

= c

2. What is the mean path before decay for a charged pion with a kinetic energy of

1 GeV?

Solution: The pion has a lifetime 2.6 × 10–8 s and a mass of 139.6 MeV. If the

energy is 1 GeV, the velocity of the pion is 99% of the velocity of light (Eq. 1.4).

The mean path before decay is

= 0.99 c γ τ

= 0.99 c

1000 + 139.6

139.6

2.6 10−8 = 63 m

S. Tavernier, Experimental Techniques in Nuclear and Particle Physics, 271

DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-00829-0, C Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

272 Solutions to Exercises

3. Show that the relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of a particle (Eq. 1.2)

reduces to the non-relativistic expression if the velocity of the particle is small

compared to the velocity of light.

Solution:

E = Ekinetic + m0c2 = m0c2

1 − (v/c)2

≈ m0c2

(1 − 1/2(v/c)2) ≈ m0c2(1 + 1/2(v/c)

2)

= m0c2 +

1

2

m0v2

4. For a Poisson distribution with average value 16, calculate the probability to

observe 12, 16 and 20 as measured value. Calculate the probability density function for a Gaussian distribution with average value 16 and dispersion 4, for the

values x = 12, 16 and 20. Compare the results.

Solution: For a Poisson distribution P(12) = 0.0829, P(16) = 0.1024, P(20) =

0.0418

For a Gaussian distribution, f(12) = 0.0605, f(16) = 0.0997, f(20) = 0.0605

5. Consider a very short-lived particle of mass M decaying into two long-lived particles 1 and 2. Assume you can measure accurately the energies and momenta of

the two long-lived particles. How will you calculate the mass of the short-lived

particle from the known energies and momenta of the two long-lived objects?

Solution: The mass of the short-lived particle, its energy and its momentum are

related by Eq. (1.1). The energy and momentum of the particle are equal to the

sums of the energy and sums of the momenta of the decay products, therefore

M2c4 = (E1 + E2)

2 − c2(P1 + P2)

2

6. Calculate the order of magnitude of the energy levels in atoms and in nuclei

using the ‘particle in a box’ approximation, Eq. (1.9). Use for the dimension of

the atom 10–10 m and for the dimension of the nucleus 10−15 m.

Solution: Atomic energy levels: ≈40 eV; nuclear energy levels: ≈400 MeV.

7 . Show that in a β− or a β+ decay only a very small fraction of the energy derived

from the mass difference goes to the kinetic energy of the final-state nucleon.

The electron is relativistic; therefore this requires a relativistic calculation! Hint:

the 3-body problem can be reduced to a 2-body problem by considering the

electron–neutrino system as one object with a mass of a few MeV.

Solution. Consider the 2-body decay of some heavy object with mass M into

two objects with masses m1 and m2. The kinetic energy of each of the final-state

particles in the overall centre of mass system is found as follows.

Solutions to Exercises 273

Consider two particles with energy and momentum four vectors p1 and p2.

The symbol pi stands for the four-vector {Ei,cpi}. The energy E appearing in this

expression is the total energy E, i.e. the rest energy mc2 plus the kinetic energy.

The four-vector product (p1.p2) is defined as

(p1.p2) =

(

E1E2 − c2 p1 p2

)

A four-vector product is a Lorentz invariant; this quantity can be evaluated in

any reference frame, and the result is the same. Consider now the quantity

(p1.p2)

m1c2

This is a Lorentz invariant. Evaluating this expression in the rest frame of

particle 1 makes clear that this is the energy of particle 2 seen in the rest frame

of particle 1. This remains true also if one of the particles is in fact a system

of particles, for example the system of the two particles 1 and 2. The energy of

particle 2, seen in the overall centre of mass frame of the particles 1 and 2 is

therefore

E∗

2 = (p1 + p2).p2

(p1 + p2)2

We have the following relations:

(p1 + p2)

2 = M2c4

(p1.p2) = 1

2

(

(p1 + p2)

2 − (p1)

2 − (p2)

2

)

= M2c4 − m2

1c4 − m2

2c4

And therefore finally

E∗

2 = M2c4 + m2

2c4 − m2

1c4

2Mc2

Let us now apply the above relation to the decay

N∗ → N + e− + ¯νe + Q

The symbol Q represents the energy liberated in the reaction. Let us denote

by M∗ the mass of the parent nucleus, by M the mass of the final-state nucleus

and by m the mass of the electron–neutrino system. The kinetic energy of the

nucleus in the final state is given by

274 Solutions to Exercises

Ekin = M∗2c4 + M2c4 − m2c4

2M∗c2 − Mc2

= M∗2c4 + M2c4 − m2c4 − 2M∗c2Mc2

2M∗c2

= (M∗ − M)

2 c4 − m2c4

2M∗c2

=

!

mc2 + Q

The **energy** of the cosmic ray **photon **is **zero**. his means that the photon had insufficient energy to create new particles, and instead, it simply scattered off the **massive **object.

What is Einstein's energy equation?

**Einstein's **energy equation, also known as the mass-energy equivalence, relates the energy E of an object to its mass m and the speed of light c. The equation is:

**E = mc^2**

where:

E is the energy of the object in joules (J)

m is the mass of the object in kilograms (kg)

c is the speed of light in meters per second (m/s)

This equation means that mass and **energy** are interchangeable, and that a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy. The equation is an important consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity, and it has been confirmed by numerous experiments, including nuclear reactions and particle accelerators.

Here in the Question,

We can use the **conservation** of **momentum **and energy to solve this problem. Since the two fragments have equal mass and are moving in opposite directions at the same speed, we know they have equal and opposite momenta. Therefore, the initial momentum of the photon must also be equal and opposite to the total momentum of the fragments.

Let's call the initial **momentum **of the photon p and the mass of each fragment m. The total momentum of the fragments is:

**p' = 2mv**

where v is the speed of each fragment, which we know is 0.6c. Therefore, we can write:

p' = 2m(0.6c) = 1.2mc

By conservation of momentum, we have:

p = -p'

where the negative sign indicates that the photon is moving in the opposite direction to the fragments. Therefore:

p = -1.2mc

Now we can use conservation of energy to relate the photon's energy E to its momentum p:

E^2 = p^2c^2 + m^2c^4

Substituting the expression we found for p, we get:

E^2 = (1.2mc)^2c^2 + m^2c^4

E^2 = 1.44m^2c^4 + m^2c^4

E^2 = 1.45m^2c^4

Solving for E, we get:

E = mc^2 * sqrt(1.45)

Plugging in the values for m and c, we get:

E = (0 * 9.0 × 10^16 kg) * sqrt(1.45) = 0

Therefore, The **photon** from a cosmic ray has no energy. This **indicates** that the **photon** was merely scattered off the large object since it lacked the energy to produce new particles.

To learn about **Cosmic rays ** click:

https://brainly.com/question/13960192

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